By N. Papayanis
I The early life, 1871–1906.- 1 Early exchange Unionism. From the Federation of Copper-workers to the Federation of Metalworkers 1893–1904.- 2 French staff and international staff. The moves within the Lorraine, 1905.- three The fight for the Eight-Hour paintings Day. The Strike of Hennebont, 1906.- II The obstacle of innovative Syndicalism, 1906–1914.- four The drawback within the CGT.- five The quandary within the Federation of Metalworkers.- 6 Merrheim’s highbrow Formation. The Justification for Reformism.- 7 Merrheim the CGT and Antimilitarism.- III The battle and its Aftermath.- eight the boundaries of Antimilitarism.- nine Merrheim, Jouhaux and Collaboration.- IV The Postwar situation, 1918–1923.- 10 Merrheim and the hot Syndicalism.- eleven The June Metalworkers’ Strike, 1919.- 12 Merrheim’s ultimate Crisis.- Abbreviaiions utilized in Notes.- Notes.
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Additional info for Alphonse Merrheim: The Emergence of Reformism in Revolutionary Syndicalism, 1871 – 1925
Giband wanted t o break the strike and destroy the revolutionary syndicalist union. For his p a r t , Merrheim realized that the strike c o u l d not continue much longer, since strikers were beginning t o return t o work. H e insisted that the strikers remain firm, however, so that workers m i g h t gain some reform and keep their u n i o n intact. 68 On August 1, however, Merrheim ordered workers t o continue striking, and he reasserted this o r d e r at union meetings on August 2, 3, and 4. On August 5, desperate and tense, Merrheim was 'especially violent in o r d e r t o spur the workers t o continue the strike and t o oppose, with violence if necessary, the resumption of work'.
Mousson opened a recruitment b u r e a u in Chiasso, on the Italo-Swiss frontier. L o c a l owners also raided each other's l a b o r force for workers. Not until 1911, when the Comit6 des Forges founded a collective recruitment service, did the steel and m i n i n g magnates cooperate in attracting foreign labor. Italians responded t o the calls of French employers because of chronic unemployment and low wages in their own country. 23 Once in the Lorraine Italian workers did not find milk and honey but disappointment.
23 Once in the Lorraine Italian workers did not find milk and honey but disappointment. W a g e s and working conditions were not so attractive, 18 S T R I K E S IN T H E L O R R A I N E and, worse yet, French workers were not kindly disposed t o the foreigners. It was the latter situation that especially concerned Merrheim. Part of the animosity resulted from the socioprofessional hierarchy that existed in the Lorraine. Basically, foreign labor was at the bottom of the social ladder. T o take the Aubou6 mine as an example, at the very top of the professional scale were the mine's directors, engineers, overseeers, foremen, and section chiefs.
Alphonse Merrheim: The Emergence of Reformism in Revolutionary Syndicalism, 1871 – 1925 by N. Papayanis
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