By Aleš Prokop, Rakesh K. Bajpai, Mark E. Zappi
Algae supply strength to provide renewable chemical compounds and fuels utilizing solar power and carbon dioxide from surroundings or in flue gases whereas concurrently decreasing the iteration of greenhouse gases. because those will be grown on marginal lands with micronutrients and macronutrients frequently found in waste streams, algae-based chemical compounds and fuels don't compete with meals. nonetheless large-scale construction of algae-based fuels and chemical compounds faces enormous technological and inexpensive demanding situations and it's going to through necessity require a biorefinery technique in which all of the attainable algal parts are switched over into value-added compounds. the current sequence on algal biorefineries represents a discussion board for reporting the cutting-edge of other applied sciences in addition to the most recent advances during this box. the amount II of this sequence enhances the amount I by way of the present cutting-edge. various chapters during this quantity tackle various matters starting from genetically modifies algae to new items to life-cycle research of algal products.
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Additional info for Algal Biorefineries: Volume 2: Products and Refinery Design
Viebahn et al. (2009) presents a fairly recent, quite comprehensive, review of literature relating to possible survival of GMMs in the environment, as well as potential ecosystem effects and impacts on non-target species. In summarizing a large number of studies involving microorganisms that might be used in agriculture or soil remediation, these authors concluded that in most cases, GMMs did not persist in the environment nor have adverse effects on indigenous microflora or other non-target organisms, but that such effects (such as population increases in the environment) were sometimes seen in some studies.
2013; Gressel et al. 2014; Menetrez 2012), as well as a recent workshop (Enzing and Nooijen 2012), the conclusions of which coincide with many of the points raised in these recent papers. Henley et al. J. Glass issues as the potential of a released strain to grow, persist and mutate in the environment, the possibility that GM algae could produce toxins or harmful algal blooms (HABs) or have other negative effects of aquatic ecosystems, and the possibility that introduced genes could spread by horizontal gene transfer and be expressed in indigenous microorganisms.
Detailed information about the industrial process, including the measures that will be taken to minimize release of the microorganism from the facility. The extent to which workers might be exposed to the microorganism. The extent to which the microorganism might be released into the environment as a result of the process. ment of the potential health and environmental effects of the microorganism should it be released from the facility. It is important to note that, in MCANs or other submissions to EPA under the biotechnology rule, the applicant can claim much or all of the submitted information as “confidential business information”, which the agency must keep confidential and which cannot be released to the public, but the applicant must provide EPA with the justification for the confidentiality claim (in fact, this justification must be included within the MCAN filing).
Algal Biorefineries: Volume 2: Products and Refinery Design by Aleš Prokop, Rakesh K. Bajpai, Mark E. Zappi