By Michel Callon, Pierre Lascoumes, Yannick Barthe
Controversies over such matters as nuclear waste, genetically converted organisms, asbestos, tobacco, gene remedy, avian flu, and mobile phone towers come up virtually day-by-day as quick medical and technological advances create uncertainty and produce approximately unexpected matters. The authors of performing in an doubtful international argue that political associations has to be elevated and superior to regulate those controversies, to rework them into efficient conversations, and to lead to "technical democracy." They exhibit how "hybrid forums"--in which specialists, non-experts, usual electorate, and politicians come together--reveal the boundaries of conventional delegative democracies, during which judgements are made through quasi-professional politicians and techno-scientific details is the area of experts in laboratories. The department among pros and laypeople, the authors declare, is just outdated. The authors argue that laboratory study will be complemented through daily experimentation pursued within the genuine global, and so they describe numerous modes of cooperation among the 2. They discover a number of concrete examples of hybrid boards that experience handled sociotechnical controversies together with nuclear waste disposal in France, commercial waste and start defects in Japan, a formative years leukemia cluster in Woburn, Massachusetts, and mad cow sickness within the uk. The authors speak about the consequences for political determination making usually and describe a "dialogic" democracy that enriches conventional consultant democracy. To invent new strategies for session and illustration, they recommend, is to give a contribution to an never-ending strategy that's invaluable for the continued democratization of democracy.
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Extra info for Acting in an Uncertain World: An Essay on Technical Democracy (Inside Technology)
In both cases, the controversies take place in public spaces that we propose to call hybrid forums4 —forums because they are open spaces where groups can come together to discuss technical options involving the collective, hybrid because the groups involved and the spokespersons claiming to represent them are heterogeneous, including experts, politicians, technicians, and laypersons who consider themselves involved. They are also hybrid because the questions and problems taken up are addressed at different levels in a variety of domains, from ethics to economic and including physiology, nuclear physics, and electromagnetism.
Thus, the history of an entire area was examined by the population, and health concerns were soon forgotten. The people living in the area laid charges against the municipality, which it accused of having chosen the site without any public consultation, and against the mobile phone operators who devalued public property by installing antennas that defaced the buildings. In short, at national and local level we witnessed an ongoing exploration of matters of concern. These proliferated and ended up weaving a dense web of unexpected issues and groups expressing and exploring them.
The notion of risk is closely associated with that of rational decision. In fact, in order for such a decision to be made, three conditions must be met. First, we must be able to establish an exhaustive list of the options open to us. In the case of the management of nuclear waste, this implies that we can guarantee that the three strategies of deep burial, transmutation, and surface storage are the only strategies worth considering. Second, for each of the options under consideration, the decision maker must be able to describe the entities constituting the world presupposed by that option.
Acting in an Uncertain World: An Essay on Technical Democracy (Inside Technology) by Michel Callon, Pierre Lascoumes, Yannick Barthe
Categories: Social Science